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Yet alongside those positive experiences, I also experienced discriminatory behavior throughout campus visits. The first was when a white male faculty member told me that I had explained my own theory on cultural betrayal trauma incorrectly. Next, a senior white female faculty member described cultural betrayal trauma theory to me as my “ideas” with air quotes and expressed her concern that my work was not scientific enough for that top-ranked department. Finally, while I was explaining how cultural betrayal can occur in rapes perpetrated by black men against black women, a white male faculty member interrupted me to suggest that being raped by a black man is simply worse for any woman, black or white.

Perhaps because I had expected kinship from minority faculty, my most painful interaction came from a high-ranking male faculty member of color. In probably a genuine attempt to help me, he expressed concern that publishing my Altra Running Womens Olympus 15 Trail Running Shoe Gray/Mint Ji4HyTP
findings for the general public would undermine my academic credibility. Painting a one-dimensional picture of university life, he suggested that academe might not be for me. Having not expected such comments from a faculty member of color, I felt a profound cultural betrayal. Even though I can sympathize with the compromises he has had to make as an elder in the field, to this day, I have yet to forgive him. Yet to heal.

Those experiences were exclamation points amid an ongoing barrage of condescension. I remember leaving interviews, thinking, “Am I stupid? They’re talking to me like I’m a complete idiot.” I checked in with my white colleague allies who told me they were sure everything was going fine: You’re qualified! Your CV speaks volumes, and you explain your work so well!

What I Learned

It was not until the interviews were over, with no job offers, that I reached out to faculty of color. I was validated: they told that I wasn’t crazy (well, except for assuming that I wouldn’t experience discrimination while interviewing –that was a little crazy). I was reminded of things I already knew but had somehow forgotten: the ubiquity of antiblack microaggressions ; critical race theory , which centralizes the experiences of people of color (not their supportive white colleague allies); and the vast literature detailing the toll of perceived discrimination.

Facing impending unemployment in a field I had spent 10 years preparing for, I went through my second wave of applications. I received two job offers, ultimately accepting my current position as a fellow in the Postdoctoral to Faculty Transition Program at Wayne State University , with placement at the JOE N JOYCE Athen SynSoft SoftFootbed sandals narrow Black yKp0U

The campus visit was unlike most of the others. I was not subjected to any open discrimination. I was spoken to respectfully, with my expertise valued. This interview resulted in a speedy job offer, with a negotiated, stellar start-up package. With one semester done, I feel I am working in a nontoxic environment — a rare academic feat I was unsure was possible after my experiences last year.

This view of the immorality but necessity of modern war makes possible the idea of the atomic bomb as simply another military weapon, like incendiary attacks. Since it was simply another weapon, that would negate the need to issue any sort of demonstration. This was clearly the prevailing military point of view.

At the same time, though, it makes it possible to regard the atomic bomb, as a clearly delineated step in an escalating insanity. For the Japanese, offering a demonstration would give them a well-defined opportunity to avoid a new phase in the devastation of their country. For the Americans, offering a demonstration would afford an opportunity to step back from the escalating immorality of war. However, if the Japanese did not respond to the opportunity to surrender, taking that step would not have been morally compromising, because the essential dividing line between morality and immorality in warfare had already been crossed.

I can see how this sort of position could be regarded as a peculiarly “scientists'” position, because they would regard themselves as having a much keener appreciation of just why the atomic bomb could be regarded as a clearly delineated step in warfare, where the military would regard it as a munition that was highly comparable to an incendiary raid—thus justifying the Chicago scientists’ sense of the need for their intervention.

This, of course, is a rather condescending view of military thinking, and I suspect Oppenheimer, who worked closely with Groves and other military personnel, would have regarded it as such. He would have known that they would have already taken into account (and already rejected as insufficiently consequential) the peculiar features of the atomic bomb as a kind of display.

Anyway, that’s my understanding of that question.

March 15, 2015 at 10:11 pm

You bring up a point that is often overlooked: the US and Britain had different styles of war in World War II. Particularly in regard to the idea of terror bombing; the British were proponents of what we now call the “shock and awe” concept, of psychological war. Lord Penney served on the targeting committee that selected Hiroshima, and one of its findings was “that psychological factors in the target selection were of great importance”.

March 7, 2015 at 10:20 am

Your final argument in this post (that it was better for posterity to show what the bomb could do to a city) is the same as Philip Morrison made in a guest lecture in my class.

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If the time for such a decision comes again, we can hope that the single individual making the decision chooses to see Hiroshima that way — as a warning rather than a precedent. But who will that person be? And will they? Or not…

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